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Glutathione Uses n Side Effects

  Glutathione Uses and Side Effects   What is Glutathione? Glutathione is a substance made from the amino acids glycine, cysteine and glutamic acid. It is produced by your liver and involved in many body processes. Glutathione is involved in tissue building and repair, making chemicals and proteins needed in the body, and in immune system function. What are the Different Name of Glutathione? Gamma-Glutamylcysteinylglycine Gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-Cysteinylglycine Gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-Cystéinylglycine Glutathion, Glutatión L-Gamma-Glutamyl-L-Cysteinyl-Glycine   L-Gamma-Glutamyl-L-Cystéinyl-Glycine L-Glutathion L-Glutathione GSH N-(N-L-gamma-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycine       Why should I take Glutathione? There are few good uses of Glutathione. People take glutathione for aging, alcohol use disorder, liver disease, heart disease, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these

Diseases in Fish, Treatment and Preventive Measures


Disease of Fishes has mortality rate as high as 80%-90%. 2 treatments, 9 preventive measures

At present, black spot disease is a disease that seriously affects the economic benefits of fish farmers. Black spot disease can occur in fish aged 20-90 days, but the disease is mostly found in fish aged 25-45 days. During the season change, the weather changes suddenly, or the water temperature exceeds 29 degrees Celsius.

If preventive measures are not taken in time, the incidence of black spot disease will increase, resulting in fish mortality as high as 80%-90%.


Diagram showing diseases in fishes

Reason why fishes are infected with black spot disease

In ponds with toxic gas concentrations of NH3, NO2 and H2S exceeding the allowable limit, alkalinity not reaching 100ppm, and dissolved oxygen concentration lower than 6ppm, harmful bacteria will multiply. 

The harmful substances secreted by these bacteria corrode the shell of the fish, and black spots (black spots) appear on the shell after healing.


Other biota such as fungi, protozoa, etc. are also responsible for damage to fish shells. 

These fungi directly affect the gills or shells of fish, causing black spots to appear on the shells. 

Protozoa can cause black gill disease, which affects the survival rate of fish.


1. Signs of black spot infection in fish

In the early stages of the disease, the most obvious sign is that the fish's tail and antennae have worn down, but the fish can still eat normally. In more severe infections, the tentacles and tail of the fish will turn red, and the tail may also be slightly swollen.


In the next stage of the disease, there are black spots scattered on the fish shell, breastplate and body. During this stage, the fish will reduce or stop eating, grow slowly, or die in the pond. 

The back of the fish is whitish, the body color is opaque, the shell is soft, or the molting is not successful.


When the condition is severe, about 70% of the fish in the pond have black spots, the liver and pancreas begin to turn white, the intestinal tract is empty, the surface of the fish has an odor and mucous membranes.


2. How to judge whether fish is infected with black spot disease


When the fish are about 20 days old, farmers start to observe the fish, if they find that the fish has black spot disease. Then farmers need to observe through the feeding table. If fish are found to be infected with black spot disease in the feeding table, it will indicate that the infection rate of the pond can be as high as 30-40%.


After the fish reach 25 days of age, if the farmer monitors the health of the fish through the shell, or through the weekly routine inspection, when the fish is detected to show signs of disease, it will appear lethargic, black spot disease, and the infection rate of the fish is Increase.


3. Transmission rate of black spot disease on fish


The rate at which the disease develops and spreads depends on the environmental conditions of the pond and the health of the fish. However, according to the records and statistics of the number of ponds infected with black spot disease in 100 fish ponds, the ponds are heavily polluted, with high concentrations of toxic gases NH3, NO2 and H2S, and oxygen levels below 4ppm. 

Probiotics are not used during pond preparation and cultivation, The disinfection work is not thorough enough, and such environmental diseases spread very quickly.

In addition, examination of bacteria causing black spot disease in fish in TCBS medium showed that the bacterial density in water was 10^5 CFU/ml.



How to cure black spot disease?

1. Treatment measures for the pond environment


Depending on the infection rate of the disease, disinfect the pond about 2-3 times with a suitable fish pond disinfection product.


After 36 hours of disinfection, inoculate a high concentration of microorganisms (and add molasses to adjust the pH) and increase aeration.


2. Treatment measures for fish


Farmers need to reduce feed by 10%-30% when they see signs of black spot disease on fish.


Farmers need to supplement with a variety of vitamins, minerals, beneficial probiotics and active ingredients to enhance the resistance of fish.



Note: Antibiotics should not be used during treatment because if used incorrectly, resistance may develop and the prawns may become re-infected and the number of infections is higher. However, through the above treatment measures, the fish infection rate is lower than 40%, the environment is free of pollution, the fish body is healthy, and the fish can overcome the disease.



How to prevent Black Spot fish disease?


1. Before breeding, it is necessary to adopt appropriate improved pond technology, use appropriate products to treat pond water, and treat pond bottom mud to stabilize and reduce water pollution.


2. Fish fry must be tested for disease by PCR technology, not only for EMS, vitiligo, IHHNV, IMNV, but also for pathogens such as NHP.


3. The density of fish farming must be adapted to the infrastructure, oxygenation system, depth, season, and fish farming experience of farmers.


4. Regularly check the bacterial density every 5-7 days and take timely measures.


5. Regularly check the environmental factors of the pond water. If the pond is contaminated with toxic gas, farmers should prioritize the use of probiotics to deal with the toxic gas in the pond to reduce the risk of fish infection with black spot.


6. Supplement vitamin C supplements, mineral supplements, immune system enhancers, intestinal probiotics. Can increase resistance.


7. Control the amount of feed put into the pond to reduce waste and provide enough nutrients to keep the fish healthy.


8. Regularly check the dissolved oxygen content in the water body, and take remedial measures to avoid long-term local hypoxia, which will cause fish stress and disease susceptibility.


9. It is strictly forbidden to discard garbage and discharge domestic waste water indiscriminately; do not breed livestock around the pond; use nets to prevent birds and animals; pay attention to the hygiene of workers and equipment used.

About Me 

Name: Gwynneth May

Educational Qualification: MBBS, MD (Medicine) Gold Medalist

Profession: Doctor

Experience: 16 Years of Work Experience as a Medical Practitioner


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