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What are various Vaccination details?

 

Vaccination Encyclopedia

Vaccination is the technique of inoculating vaccine preparations into humans or animals, so that the recipient can obtain immunity against a specific or similar pathogen. Through the recognition of foreign objects by the immune system, antibodies are screened and manufactured.

In order to produce antibodies against the pathogen or similar pathogens, the injection recipients have strong resistance to the disease.

The common vaccination method in medicine today is injection, and the term "vaccination" is derived from the technique of vaccination. Its original intention is different from today's usage, and there is a slight gap in the application of modern immunological research.

In April 2019, the draft of the Vaccine Management Law was reviewed at the tenth meeting of the Standing Committee of the 13th National People's Congress. 

Compared with the first review manuscript, the second review manuscript further refines the compensation system for abnormal vaccination reactions, and clearly states that death, severe disability and other damages after the implementation of vaccination, even if the abnormal vaccination reaction cannot be ruled out, must be compensated.


Details below cover interpretation of vaccination, vaccination in the organism, the immune system produces antibodies against the pathogen or similar pathogens.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. History

3. Purpose

4. Prevention

5. Treatment

6. Prevention of popular science

7. Commonly used vaccines for children

▪ Traditional vaccine

▪ New vaccine

▪ Vaccination

8. Immune response

▪ Active immunity

▪ Passive immunity

9. Vaccination schedule

▪ One type of vaccine

▪ Type II vaccine

10. Principle

11. Classification of contraindications

12. Vaccination contraindications

13. Vaccine reaction

 

 

1. Introduction to Vaccination

The doctor will vaccinate you to prevent diseases, which is called vaccination or vaccination. Vaccines contain harmless dead germs or substances extracted from harmless dead germs, which enable the body to produce natural defenses against germs. After the injection, the body seems to be invaded by pathogens and begins to produce antibodies that kill the pathogens; the body will produce protective white blood cells that can resist certain types of infectious diseases. If you encounter similar germs in the future, your body can immediately eliminate the germs.


2. What is History of Vaccination?

The earliest known vaccination can be traced to human pox vaccination (English: variolation), which originated in Chinese civilization in 200 BC. According to the medical books of the Qing Dynasty, the Chinese people began to grow smallpox in the Northern Song Dynasty from the 11th century, and another medical book recorded that "the method of nasal seedling inoculation was first passed on by the Zhao family in Jiangnan" earlier in the Tang Dynasty, and "There are eight or nine thousand people who are vaccinated, those who cannot save them, twenty or thirty ears." This shows that the technology is quite effective in preventing smallpox, and it is speculated that the less toxic smallpox may be used to make the subjects who want to be immune to smallpox. 

The patient had contact with the patient’s purulent vesicles, but this method could not be guaranteed to be effective, and the risk was still high, with a mortality rate of 1 to 2%, and then this technology spread along the silk road. In the early 18th century, the technique of vaccination was introduced to the West from Constantinople. 

In 1760, Daniel Bernoulli succeeded in letting the world discover that despite the dangers of vaccination technique, it could extend the general life expectancy by three years.

A doctor injecting vaccine in the patient's shoulder
Vaccination is usually injected on the deltoid muscle of the shoulder

British physician Edward Jenner heard that it is generally believed that vaccinia can prevent human smallpox. He was curious. On May 14, 1796, he vaccinated a child with pus drawn from a peasant woman infected with vaccinia for three months. 

Later, he inoculated smallpox to the child and confirmed that the child is immune to smallpox. This method has spread throughout Europe. Therefore, in languages ​​that use the Latin alphabet, the Latin word "vacca" for "cow" is used as Ziyuan, to commemorate Edward Kinner's use of vaccinia as a milestone in vaccine experiments.

Louis Pasteur further explained the meaning and purpose of vaccination, and his colleagues (Émile Roux and Duclaux) followed the hypothesis proposed by Rob Koch and established the relationship between microorganisms and the disease. This discovery allowed Pasteur to improve vaccination techniques, and subsequently successfully developed a cholera vaccine for sheep on May 5, 1881, and on June 6, 1885, a child was vaccinated against mad cow disease. If we don't look at the initial definition of "vaccine", this is the first injection of vaccine in human history.


3. What is the Purpose of Vaccination?

The main purpose of vaccination is to enable the body to produce natural biological substances to enhance the organism’s identification and defense functions against pathogens. Sometimes similar pathogens can cause an immune response against the same type of pathogen. Therefore, a vaccine is mainly for one Diseases, or pathogens with a high degree of similarity, such as vaccinia to prevent smallpox is a good example. But since the end of the 20th century, immunologists have discovered that vaccines are also possible for treatment, and have developed relevant research theories and practical uses.


4. What does Vaccine Prevent?

Most of the time, vaccination is a medical behavior that can stimulate an individual's natural defense mechanism to prevent possible diseases in the future. This kind of vaccination is specifically called prophylactic immunization. 

Vaccination taking place
Dr. Schreiber vaccinated against typhoid fever in a rural school

Diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type B, hepatitis B, tuberculosis (the effect of the BCG vaccine for preventing tuberculosis has not been unanimously recognized by the academic community, so the United States, Belgium and the Netherlands have not adopted this vaccine.), embarrassment Rash, rubella, and mumps are currently the most common types of vaccines. 

Because there are many diseases that need to be prevented with vaccines, in order to simplify the complicated vaccination procedures, some laboratories are committed to the development of multi-effect vaccines. 

At present, at least the "diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough mixed vaccine" (referred to as "diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine") has been used. ", Di-Te-Per) and "Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Measles Mixed Vaccine" (MMR). Since not all vaccines can be administered at the same time, the types of vaccines newborns need to receive are still quite cumbersome. 

Vaccines can not only reduce the incidence of the disease in vaccinated persons. When the disease to be dealt with by a vaccine only infects a single species, it is feasible to eliminate the pathogen. For example, smallpox only infects humans in nature. 

After being vaccinated, smallpox cannot continue to spread, nor can it spread among other animals. Therefore, the United Nations declared the extinction of smallpox in 1980 and the second type of polio in 1999 also ceased to exist. Therefore, many countries have gradually cancelled the vaccination of related vaccines, which also makes individuals who have not been vaccinated may be threatened by biological warfare in the future.


5. How Vaccines are usable in Treatment?

Vaccines can also be used for active immunotherapy. This technology stimulates the immune system to produce a large number of antibodies, or foreign corresponding antibodies, to jointly deal with pathogens in patients who have been infected. Rabies vaccines use this principle. At the same time, this vaccine may also be used as a preventive vaccine. 

In recent years, research on cancer and AIDS has found that diseased cells and general cells have different marks on their surfaces, which may be suitable as targets for antibody attacks to treat patients. Types of vaccines


6. Prevention of popular science 

At 10:00 on January 17, 2021 (Sunday), the Population and Cultural Development Center of the National Health Commission and the People's Daily Health Client will live to visit the Museum of China's Biological Products Industry. The well-known host Xi Kai talks with Academician Zhao Kai of the Chinese Academy of Engineering.

 

7. What are some commonly used vaccines for children?

Traditional Vaccine

i. Measles vaccine

Measles vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine with mild vaccination response and good immunity. It can prevent measles by vaccinating babies on a regular basis after birth.

Inoculation site: The attachment of the deltoid muscle on the outer side of the upper arm is injected subcutaneously.

Dose: 0.2ml

Reaction: Generally, there is no local response after injection. A small number of people may have fever in 6-10 days, usually not more than 2 days, and occasionally scattered rashes.

Contraindications: Severe diseases, fever, or allergy history (especially those with egg allergy history) should not be vaccinated.

Precautions: Use 75% alcohol to disinfect the skin and inject it after it dries; people who have been injected with gamma globulin can receive this vaccine at least 6 weeks apart, and at least 2 weeks after receiving the measles vaccine can inject gamma globulin.


ii. Polio vaccine (referred to as polio candy pill)

Polio candy pill is an oral vaccine preparation, white granular candy pill, safe for vaccination. Taking sugar pills as planned after the baby is born can effectively prevent polio (poliomyelitis).

Inoculation site: Orally

Dose: 1 sugar pill form, 2 drops of liquid form

Reaction: Only a very small number of infants and young children have transient diarrhea after taking polio vaccine, and they can heal themselves without treatment.

Contraindications: People with immunodeficiency are forbidden to take it. During the period of receiving immunosuppressant treatment, it is forbidden to take it. 

People who are allergic to cow's milk and cow's milk products are not allowed to take the sugar pill vaccine, but can take the liquid vaccine.

Precautions: This vaccine is for oral use only; this strain of live vaccine should not be added to hot water or hot food; occasionally overdose and multiple doses of the vaccine are harmless to the human body.


iii. Diphtheria diphtheriae preparation

It is a mixture of pertussis vaccine, refined diphtheria toxoid and refined tetanus toxoid, which can prevent pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus at the same time.

Inoculation site: Intramuscular injection on the upper 1/4 of the buttocks or the deltoid muscle of the upper arm.

Dose0.5ml

Reaction: a. Redness, pain, itching or low-grade fever, fatigue and headache may occur locally. Generally, it disappears on its own without special treatment. Occasionally, allergic rash and angioedema are seen. 

b. Aseptic suppuration. In most cases, the injection is too shallow or the vaccine is not shaken well, and the induration cannot be absorbed and the injection site is purulent. 

c. If the systemic reaction is severe, go to the hospital for diagnosis and treatment in time.

Contraindications: People with a history of epilepsy, neurological disorders and convulsions are forbidden; acute infectious diseases (including recovery period) and fever are temporarily deferred injection; children's immune preparations are forbidden for adults.

Precautions: Shake well during use; the product cannot be frozen, and clots appear after freezing, so it cannot be used; intramuscular injection may be used, there may be local induration, which can be gradually absorbed. 

When the second needle is injected, the other part should be replaced; should 1:1000 adrenaline is available for emergency use when shock occurs occasionally; if abnormalities such as high fever and convulsions occur after the first injection, the second injection is not required.


iv. BCG Vaccine

It is made of non-toxic bovine Mycobacterium tuberculosis, safe and effective. Vaccination as planned after the baby is born is a reliable measure to prevent tuberculosis.

BCG vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine designed to prevent the occurrence of tuberculosis. Generally, in countries with a large number of tuberculosis cases, it is recommended that newborns be vaccinated with BCG vaccine before they are infected in order to develop resistance to tuberculosis.

Inoculation site: Intradermal injection in the middle of the outer deltoid muscle of the upper arm.

Dose0.1ml

Reaction: About 2 weeks after vaccination, redness, swelling and infiltration may occur locally. If it becomes purulent and forms a small ulcer, it can be smeared with 1% gentian to prevent infection. 

Generally, scabs will form after 8 to 12 weeks, which is a normal reaction. 

In case of swollen lymph nodes, hot compresses can be used. If pustules have been softened, pus can be drawn with a sterile syringe instead of incision. 

If the pus is not healed after a single pus, you can repeat the pus until healed. If it has been ruptured, the healing time will be longer, which can expand the drainage of the wound. At the same time, use isocarmine or p-aminosalicylic acid ointment for external application, and change the dressing every 2 to 3 days, which can shorten the treatment and healing time.

Contraindications: Anyone suffering from tuberculosis, acute infectious diseases, nephritis, heart disease, eczema, immunodeficiency or other skin diseases will not be vaccinated.

Precautions: Subcutaneous or intramuscular injection is strictly prohibited.  The same arm cannot be vaccinated with BCG within 4 weeks after inoculation of products containing adsorbents, and other vaccines cannot be vaccinated with the same arm within 4 weeks after inoculation of BCG.


Who should not be vaccinated with BCG?

1. High fever person

2. People with severe acute symptoms and immune insufficiency.

3. Accompanied by other serious congenital diseases at birth.

4. The newborn's weight is less than 2500 grams.

5. Suspicious tuberculosis patients should not be vaccinated directly with BCG vaccine, and tuberculin test should be done first.

6. Severe eczema


What Reaction may after BCG Vaccination?

1. 7-14 days after vaccination, there are red bars at the vaccination site, which are slightly painful and itchy.

2. It can turn into pustules or ulcers 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination.

3. After inoculation, the ulcers will heal naturally in 2 to 3 months, and sometimes the lymph glands in the ipsilateral armpit will swell.


Precautions

The pustules or ulcers formed by the red nodules should not be squeezed or bandaged, as long as they are kept clean.

If the inoculation site is severely swollen and infected, please consult a doctor.


v. Japanese encephalitis vaccine

The Japanese encephalitis vaccine system infects hamster kidney cells with Japanese encephalitis virus. 

After cultivation, the virus solution is harvested and lyophilized to make a live attenuated vaccine for the prevention of Japanese encephalitis.

i. Inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine

Inoculation site: The attachment of the deltoid muscle on the outer side of the upper arm is injected subcutaneously.

Dose: 0.5ml

Reaction: Most people have no response to vaccination. Only a few children have local redness, swelling and pain after the injection, which subsides within 1 to 2 days. 

A few have fever, generally below 38°C. A few have conscious symptoms such as dizziness, headache, and discomfort. 

Occasionally, the incidence of skin rash, angioedema and anaphylactic shock increases with the increase in the number of vaccinations. 

It usually occurs 10 to 30 minutes after the injection, and rarely more than 24 hours. Such vaccination reactions are more common in subjects who have repeated booster injections, especially in children over 7 years of age.

Contraindications: fever and acute diseases, severe chronic diseases, brain and nervous system diseases, allergic diseases, people who have a history of allergies to antibiotics and vaccines in the past.

Precautions: Vaccines with turbidity, discoloration (yellowing), cracked ampoules, or foreign bodies should not be used. Rest on the spot for a while after the vaccine injection to prevent side effects. 

1:1000 epinephrine should be prepared for occasional shock It is used in emergency. People over 10 years old have generally gained immunity due to invisible infection, so there is no need to vaccinate again.


ii. Live attenuated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine

Inoculation site|: The attachment of the deltoid muscle on the outer side of the upper arm is injected subcutaneously.

Dose: 0.5ml

Reaction: Generally, there is no response after injection, a few people have local redness and swelling, occasionally fever and allergic rash.

Contraindications: Fever, acute infectious diseases, otitis media, heart, kidney and liver diseases, active tuberculosis, persons with a history of allergies or convulsions, persons with known immune system deficiencies, recent or undergoing immunosuppressive therapy.

Precautions: When opening the ampoule and injecting, do not allow the disinfectant to contact the vaccine.

After the vaccine is dissolved, there is a clot that cannot be shaken, the ampoule is cracked, and cannot be used.

It changes color (red) before the vaccine is dissolved and cannot be used.

The production of vaccines can be chemically synthesized, led by specific proteins, to produce subtle changes that enable them to biochemically react with lymphocytes and affect the production of antibodies; but it can also be produced directly through organisms. 

The product, starting with a living pathogen, can be replicated in a special environment controlled by experiments, or a dead pathogen can be used as an inducement, which can only stimulate the lymphocytes without harming other cells. 

Although it is generally believed that live vaccines are effective, they are relatively difficult to preserve. Because genetic engineering is involved and raises research ethical issues, chemically synthesized vaccines are currently less used.

In 1972, the United States promoted much vaccination.


Traditional vaccine


Inactivated vaccine


The structure of pathogenic microorganisms is destroyed or killed by heat or chemical agents, but because part of the structure is still intact, it can induce an immune response to achieve the purpose of vaccination, such as influenza, cholera, bubonic plague, hepatitis A, but due to toxicity Low, short-lived, unable to elicit a complete response, and sometimes must be hit.


What is Live Attenuated Vaccine?

The living microorganisms produced by culture technology are used in the process of adding chemicals, changing genetic material, or applying physical changes to obtain varieties with reduced or detoxified toxicity. 

Since the immune response mainly detects the external structure of the germ itself, it can still effectively generate the immunity of the vaccinated person after subtracting toxic substances or microbial metabolites. For example: yellow fever, rash, mumps vaccine. 

The live tuberculosis vaccine is made from a non-infectious tuberculosis strain (strain), but the BCG vaccine is rarely used in the United States.


What is Toxoid Vaccine?

Certain microorganisms are harmless by themselves, but the toxins they produce and release are the root causes of diseases. Some scientists modify or destroy these toxins to achieve the basic inducing function required for immune response without harming the vaccinators, such as tetanus and diphtheria. 


What is Subunit Vaccine?

Some toxins or microorganisms only need to use part of the structure to trigger an immune response. For example, the hepatitis B vaccine contains only the surface protein of the virus.


New Vaccine

What is Combination vaccine?

Utilizing the polysaccharide structure on the surface of bacteria, sometimes these structures are not effective in identifying the immune system. 

By connecting this layer with many special substances, such as proteins, toxins or carbohydrates with special structures, it can improve the judgment of the immune system. This method has been successfully used in the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine.


What is Gene Recombinant Vector Vaccine?

Based on the physiological operation of microorganisms, combined with the DNA of other species of microorganisms, vaccines developed in this way may be helpful for diseases with complicated infection processes. 

For example, cutting the DNA of bacteria into fragments and combining them into the chromosomes of yeasts, using the yeasts to make the fragments of bacterial proteins as vaccines, can avoid the substantial harm of pathogenic bacteria to the human body and achieve the immune effect.


What is DNA Vaccine?

The target cells are infected by modified viruses or bacteria to insert genes or regulate gene expression to activate the immune system. If these cells therefore display substances on the surface that are different from those of the inoculated person, it will It will be recognized by the immune system and be attacked. 

Although this technology is still being tested, it may become an important treatment for cancer and genetic diseases in the future.


Vaccination

Introduction: The planned vaccine (a type of vaccine) is included in the planned immunization according to national regulations. It is a free vaccine and must be vaccinated after the baby is born. Unplanned vaccines (Class II vaccines) are self-funded vaccines. It can be determined according to the baby's own situation, the different conditions in each region and the parents' financial situation.

Before 1 year old, in the life of a cute baby, nothing is more important than prevention of immunity. Now most families already know to vaccinate their babies on time, but there are still many new parents who have not raised enough attention to immunization.

i.) Free vaccines are enough to protect babies

 Many parents are confused when they bring their babies to vaccinate, is it a free type 1 vaccine or a self-paid type 2 vaccine? Are paid vaccines better than free vaccines? 

Experts said that the first type of vaccine and the second type of vaccine are for the prevention and control of infectious diseases, and there is no difference in safety, vaccination effect, and quality between the two.


ii.) What vaccinations do newborns need?

 The birth of a baby is a joyous event for the family. However, for babies to grow up healthily, timely vaccination is indispensable. After the child is born, the guardian should apply for the "Vaccination Certificate" at the vaccination unit in the place of residence or residence within 1 month, so that the vaccination unit can establish a vaccination card for your child in time and arrange a vaccination plan.


iii.) Commonly used vaccines for childhood immunization

a. Measles vaccine: Measles vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine with mild vaccination response and good immunity. It can prevent measles by vaccinating babies on a regular basis after birth.

b. Poliomyelitis vaccine (referred to as polio candy pill): Polio candy is an oral vaccine preparation, white granular candy pill, safe for vaccination. Taking sugar pills as planned after the baby is born can effectively prevent polio (poliomyelitis).

c. Diphtheria and Diphtheria preparation: It is made by mixing whooping cough vaccine, refined diphtheria toxoid and refined tetanus toxoid, which can prevent whooping cough, diphtheria and tetanus at the same time.

d. BCG vaccine: It is made of non-toxic bovine Mycobacterium tuberculosis, safe and effective. Vaccination as planned after the baby is born is a reliable measure to prevent tuberculosis. BCG vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine designed to prevent the occurrence of tuberculosis. 

Generally, in countries with a large number of tuberculosis cases, it is recommended that newborns be vaccinated with BCG vaccine before they are infected in order to develop resistance to tuberculosis.

e. Japanese encephalitis vaccine: Japanese encephalitis vaccine is used to infect hamster kidney cells with Japanese encephalitis virus. After cultivation, the virus solution is harvested and freeze-dried to make a live attenuated vaccine for the prevention of Japanese encephalitis.


iv.) Sick children get vaccinated

The child has a cold or fever, but it just happens to be on the vaccination appointment day. 

Can I still take the child to get the vaccine? 

Will there be any adverse reactions to sick children being vaccinated? 

When the child suffers from a common cold or cough, parents do not need to change the time of vaccination. However, in the following cases, it is not appropriate to vaccinate your child. It is necessary to postpone the vaccination according to the doctor’s advice.


v.) How to care for the baby after vaccination? 

Vaccine is a foreign body to the human body, so after vaccination, it will stimulate a series of reactions in the body. Some are normal and can disappear quickly, and some require your careful attention. Pain and local redness and swelling. It may last for 1 to 2 days.

Parents' response: No need to deal with, observe the general condition of the child.

Mild to moderate fever. Generally 1-2 days, some may be accompanied by headache, dizziness, chills, nausea, fatigue, etc.

Parents' response: Generally, special treatment is not required, but medications should be used to reduce fever when the temperature exceeds 38°C. At the same time, drink more boiled water and keep warm.

Mild rash. It usually appears within a few hours or days after vaccination, and usually appears on the body part.

Parents' response: Generally, it can be relieved by itself within 2 days, usually without special treatment, and symptomatic treatment can be given if necessary.


vi.) What are the contraindications of vaccination?

The contraindications of different types of vaccines are different, and the vaccination should be carried out in strict accordance with the vaccination instructions. At the same time, children’s parents should truthfully report the child’s health status before each vaccination to reduce the occurrence of abnormal vaccination reactions. 


The following are general contraindications for vaccination: 

(1) Children who are suffering from acute diseases such as fever and diarrhea should temporarily delay vaccination; chronic diseases.

Different types of vaccines have different contraindications. When vaccination, the vaccination should be carried out in strict accordance with the vaccination instructions. At the same time, children’s parents should truthfully report the child’s health status before each vaccination to reduce the occurrence of abnormal vaccination reactions.

Introduction: The planned vaccine (a type of vaccine) is included in the planned immunization according to national regulations. It is a free vaccine and must be vaccinated after the baby is born. 

Unplanned vaccines (Class II vaccines) are self-funded vaccines. It can be determined according to the baby's own situation, the different conditions in each region and the parents' financial situation.

Before 1 year old, in the life of a cute baby, nothing is more important than prevention of immunity. Now most families already know to vaccinate their babies on time, but there are still many new parents who have not raised enough attention to immunization.

Promotion of vaccination

I.) Are free vaccines are enough to protect babies?

 Many parents are confused when they bring their babies to vaccinate: Is it a free type 1 vaccine or a self-paid type 2 vaccine?

Are paid vaccines better than free vaccines?

This week is the Vaccination Publicity Week. Yunnan will launch a publicity campaign with the theme "Vaccination, Baby's Health" across the province.

Experts said that the first type of vaccine and the second type of vaccine are for the prevention and control of infectious diseases, and there is no difference in safety, vaccination effect, and quality between the two.

 

II.) What vaccinations do newborns need?

The birth of a baby is a joyous event for the family. However, for babies to grow up healthily, timely vaccination is indispensable.

After the child is born, the guardian should apply for the "Vaccination Certificate" at the vaccination unit in the place of residence or residence within 1 month, so that the vaccination unit can establish a vaccination card for your child in time and arrange a vaccination plan.

 

III.) What are some commonly used vaccines for childhood immunization?

i. Measles vaccine: Measles vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine with mild vaccination response and good immunity.

It can prevent measles by vaccinating babies on a regular basis after birth.

 

ii. Poliomyelitis vaccine (referred to as polio candy pill): Polio candy is an oral vaccine preparation, white granular candy pill, safe for vaccination.

Taking sugar pills as planned after the baby is born can effectively prevent polio (poliomyelitis).

 

iii. Diphtheria and Diphtheria preparation: It is made by mixing whooping cough vaccine, refined diphtheria toxoid and refined tetanus toxoid, which can prevent whooping cough, diphtheria and tetanus at the same time.

 

iv. BCG vaccine: It is made of non-toxic bovine Mycobacterium tuberculosis, safe and effective. Vaccination as planned after the baby is born is a reliable measure to prevent tuberculosis.

BCG vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine designed to prevent the occurrence of tuberculosis.

Generally, in countries with a large number of tuberculosis cases, it is recommended that newborns be vaccinated with BCG vaccine before they are infected in order to develop resistance to tuberculosis.

 

v. Japanese encephalitis vaccine: Japanese encephalitis vaccine is used to infect hamster kidney cells with Japanese encephalitis virus. After cultivation, the virus solution is harvested and freeze-dried to make a live attenuated vaccine for the prevention of Japanese encephalitis.

 

IV.) Do Sick children get vaccinated?

 The child has a cold or fever, but it just happens to be on the vaccination appointment day.

Can I still take the child to get the vaccine? 

Will there be any adverse reactions to sick children being vaccinated? 

When the child suffers from a common cold or cough, parents do not need to change the time of vaccination. However, in the following cases, it is not appropriate to vaccinate your child. It is necessary to postpone the vaccination according to the doctor’s advice

 

V.) How to care for the baby after vaccination?

Vaccine is a foreign body to the human body, so after vaccination, it will stimulate a series of reactions in the body. Some are normal and can disappear quickly, and some require your careful attention. 

Pain and local redness and swelling. It may last for 1 to 2 days.

Parents' response: No need to deal with, observe the general condition of the child.

Mild to moderate fever. Generally 1-2 days, some may be accompanied by headache, dizziness, chills, nausea, fatigue, etc.

Parents' response: Generally, special treatment is not required, but medications should be used to reduce fever when the temperature exceeds 38°C. At the same time, drink more boiled water and keep warm.

Mild rash. It usually appears within a few hours or days after vaccination, and usually appears on the body part.

Parents' response: Generally, it can be relieved by itself within 2 days, usually without special treatment, and symptomatic treatment can be given if necessary.

 

VI.) What are the contraindications of vaccination?

The contraindications of different types of vaccines are different, and the vaccination should be carried out in strict accordance with the vaccination instructions. At the same time, children’s parents should truthfully report the child’s health status before each vaccination to reduce the occurrence of abnormal vaccination reactions.

 

The following are general contraindications for vaccination:

(1) Children who are suffering from acute diseases such as fever and diarrhea should temporarily delay vaccination; chronic diseases. Different types of vaccines have different contraindications.

When vaccination, the vaccination should be carried out in strict accordance with the vaccination instructions. At the same time, children’s parents should truthfully report the child’s health status before each vaccination to reduce the occurrence of abnormal vaccination reactions.

Vaccination and immunity

8. Immune Response

What is Active immunity?

Since the immune system can distinguish between friend and foe, it treats foreign objects different from itself as pathogens, and produces various reactions, including redness, swelling, heat and pain in general inflammatory reactions, and the production of specific immunoglobulins. It is used to neutralize pathogens and activate related attack activities to establish a specific defense mechanism to destroy foreign objects and to remember such foreign objects in the short or long term.

Vaccination uses the operating principle of the immune system to make the substance injected into the recipient's body similar or equivalent to a foreign substance, triggering similar physiological functions, so that when similar substances with more virulence enter the body in the future, the similar situation can be recalled.

To speed up the response to pathogens. Therefore, the immune process that stimulates individuals to produce antibodies on their own is called active immunization.

 

What is Passive immunity?

In addition to providing preventive measures for active immunity, vaccines can also directly assist patients in administering serotype vaccines in emergencies, that is, a type of antibody that is drawn from individuals with resistance to the disease, or it is through biochemical synthesis, directly injected into the patient's body to suppress the activity of pathogens.

During the SARS epidemic in Taiwan in 2003, when it was not approved by the government or confirmed by the relevant effective report of the World Health Organization, this method was used to quickly suppress the deterioration of the disease due to the critical condition of the patient.

Although it successfully bought time and rescued the critically ill number However, because antibodies cannot be reused, they are subject to self-metabolism and decomposition.

A girl is taking vaccine


Individuals still have to produce antibodies on their own, recognize foreign objects through spontaneous immune response, and then can remember and continue to make antibodies to resist the disease, so that they can truly heal. The immune response triggered by vaccination is called passive immunization.

 

9. What is Vaccination Schedule?

One type of vaccine

  1. At birth: BCG, hepatitis B vaccine (basic) 
  2. One month: Hepatitis B vaccine (basic)
  3. Two months: polio vaccine (basic)
  4. Three months: polio vaccine, DPT vaccine (basic)
  5. Four months: polio vaccine, DTP vaccine (basic)
  6. Five months: DPT vaccine (basic)
  7. Six months: hepatitis B vaccine, group A meningococcal vaccine (basic)
  8. Eight months: measles vaccine, Japanese encephalitis vaccine (basic)
  9. Nine months: A group of meningococcal vaccine (basic)
  10. 1.5-2 years old: DPT vaccine, measles vaccine, Japanese encephalitis vaccine (enhanced)
  11. 3 years old: A group of meningococcal vaccine (enhanced)
  12. 4 years old: polio vaccine (enhanced)
  13. 6 years old: DPT vaccine (enhanced), Japanese encephalitis vaccine, group A meningococcal vaccine (enhanced)


Type 2 vaccine

(1) Group A+C meningococcal vaccine: 1 injection at the age of 3, and one injection at the age of 6 and 9 each.

(2) Acellular DPT vaccine: It can replace the whole cell DPT vaccine, and the vaccination procedure is the same as that of the whole cell DPT vaccine.

(3) MMR vaccine: one injection at the age of 1.5-2, and one injection at 4 years after basic immunization.

(4) Live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine or inactivated hepatitis A vaccine: The inoculation time of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine is 1 injection at the age of 2 years, and 1 injection after 4 years. Inactivated vaccines will be given 2 shots between the ages of 1-16, with an interval of 6 months, and 1 shot will be given to those over 16 years old.

(5) Varicella vaccine: 1 shot for 1-12 years old.

(6) Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine: one injection at the age of 2, 4, and 6 months, and one injection at the age of 12 months.

(7) Influenza vaccine: 2 injections per year for 1-3 years old, 1 month apart. One vaccination a year for people over 3 years old

Principle of vaccines


10. What is the Principle of Vaccination?

The principle of vaccination is to stimulate the body by inoculating antigens, so that the baby's body will produce specific antibodies to deal with bacteria and viruses. However, sometimes the baby has some special conditions that make it unsuitable for vaccination. We call this condition a "contraindication".

Each vaccine contains different antigens and different contraindications.

 

11. What are Contraindication Classifications pertaining to Vaccination?

Contraindications are generally divided into two categories, one is temporary contraindications. The other is absolute contraindications. 

Premature babies, dystocia babies, children in the acute phase who are feverish or suffering from general diseases are "temporary contraindications." These babies can be replanted after the illness recovers. However, if your baby has immunodeficiency or severe allergies, it is an "absolute contraindication". 


12. Vaccine Contraindications

Vaccination may cause abnormal reactions and even life-threatening, so it is absolutely not for vaccination.

Vaccines for health

What is Vaccination Taboo?

(1) BCG vaccine contraindications: premature babies, low birth weight babies (birth weight less than 2500 grams), and dystocia should be carefully planted. Babies with fever, diarrhea, or severe skin diseases should be delayed. Tuberculosis, acute infectious diseases, heart and kidney disease, and immune insufficiency babies are forbidden to breed.

(2) Poliomyelitis trivalent mixed vaccine contraindications: babies who have diarrhea a week before the vaccine, or who have diarrhea more than 4 times a day, and babies who have fever or acute illness, should temporarily delay vaccination. For babies with immunodeficiency, babies who are using immunosuppressive agents (such as hormones) should not be used. Babies who are allergic to milk can take a liquid vaccine.

(3) DTP vaccine contraindications: babies with fever, acute disease or acute attack of chronic disease should be delayed. Central nervous system diseases (such as epilepsy), babies with a history of convulsions, and babies with severe allergies should not be used.

(4) Measles vaccine taboo: Babies who have suffered from measles do not need to be vaccinated. Babies with fever or active tuberculosis, babies with a history of allergies (especially allergic to eggs) should not be used. Babies who have been injected with gamma globulin can be vaccinated only after an interval of one month.

(5) Japanese encephalitis vaccine contraindications: babies with fever, acute disease or acute attack of chronic disease should be delayed. Children with brain or nervous system disorders and allergies are prohibited from breeding.

(6) Epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis vaccine contraindications: brain and nervous system disorders (epilepsy, hysteria, sequelae of encephalitis, convulsions, etc.), allergies, severe heart and kidney diseases, and active tuberculosis are disabled for babies. Babies with fever and acute diseases can be delayed.

(7) Hepatitis B vaccine contraindications: hepatitis, fever, acute infection, chronic severe disease, and allergic babies are forbidden.

(8) Hepatitis A vaccine contraindications: babies with fever, acute illness or chronic illness should be delayed. Immune deficiencies, babies who are receiving immunosuppressive therapy, and babies with allergies should not be allowed.


Some parents know that their babies have contraindications to vaccination, but still feel lucky and do not explain the situation to the medical staff before vaccination. This vaccination is very dangerous. For example, a user on the KangQ network previously vaccinated the baby with hepatitis B vaccine when the baby was feverish, which finally caused the baby to have serious organ malformations. Therefore, I hope that parents should be cautious in the issue of baby vaccination. If something goes wrong, the right baby will suffer a 100% loss, and he will regret it when the time comes.

 

13. What is Vaccine Response?

Although the vaccine has been inactivated or attenuated, it is caused by a protein or other antigenic substance that still has a certain stimulating effect on the human body. In fact, this is also a kind of self-protection of the human body. Just like a cold and fever, the body is resisting bacteria or viruses.

Vaccine response

 

Normal reaction

Local reactions such as mild swelling and pain. After DPT vaccination, the appearance of induration on the baby's buttocks is a common phenomenon after inoculation of adsorbent preparations. The systemic reactions after vaccination include fever and general discomfort. Generally, fever below 38.5 for 1 to 2 days is a normal reaction. Normal reactions, whether local or systemic, generally do not require special treatment. Feed more water and pay attention to let the baby rest.

If your baby has a high fever, you can take anti-fever medicines, do physical cooling, eat nutritious and easy-to-digest food, feed more water, and pay attention to changes in your child's condition.

 

Abnormal reaction

Local infection, aseptic abscess; fainting needle, hysteria; skin rash, angioedema, anaphylactic shock, etc. In case of dizziness or anaphylactic shock, immediately let the baby lie supine, lower the head, orally take warm water or sugar water; at the same time, immediately ask the doctor for emergency symptomatic treatment.

If a rash occurs, you can apply desensitizing drugs to your baby under the guidance of a doctor.

The appearance of anaphylactic shock is generally manifested as the baby's pale complexion, cold limbs, cold sweats, difficulty breathing, even confusion, convulsions, etc. within a short period of time after vaccination. At this time, the general doctor will immediately give the baby a subcutaneous injection of epinephrine, and at the same time give hormones and desensitizers to observe and treat.

 

What are Adverse Vaccine Reactions and Treatment Measures?

Usually after vaccination, the adverse reactions that the baby is prone to include diarrhea, rash, fever and so on.

Generally, no special treatment is required for mild diarrhea. Just pay attention to add more water to the baby, change the diaper in time, and ensure adequate rest, and it will recover in two or three days. If your baby's diarrhea is severe and does not improve for more than 3 days, you should take your baby to the hospital in time.

Vaccine injection

Some babies will experience an increase in body temperature 6 to 24 hours after being vaccinated with inactivated vaccines, most of which are below 37.5°C, and only a few vaccines such as DPT vaccine can cause fever around 38.5°C, generally lasting 1- 2 days, rarely more than 3 days.

After vaccination with live attenuated vaccines, such as measles vaccine, leprosy vaccine, varicella vaccine, etc., the fever response after vaccination is caused by a mild infection of the vaccine virus, and the fever response occurs later, usually in 5-7 days, there is a short-term fever . This kind of fever disappears quickly, and the fever can be relieved in 1 to 2 days.

Different vaccines, the incidence of fever after vaccination is also different, mild fever generally does not need to be treated, as long as strengthened observation, proper rest, drink plenty of water, pay attention to keep warm to prevent secondary infections. Those with higher body temperature should go to the hospital for symptomatic treatment and rehydration if necessary.

Among the skin rashes that appear for no other reason after vaccination, urticaria is the most common, which usually occurs several hours or even days after vaccination. Special skin rashes, such as measles vaccine, mumps vaccine, rubella vaccine, appear sparse rash 5-7 days after vaccination, and usually disappear within 7-10 days. The rash caused by the measles vaccine is very mild. Papules, blisters, or herpes are common 12 to 21 days after varicella vaccine inoculation. Generally, they are not many, about 10 or less, and they will not scab. It can be cured after treatment, and the prognosis is good.

 


Author's Bio


Name: Gwynneth May

Educational Qualification: MBBS, MD (Medicine) Gold Medalist

Profession: Doctor

Experience: 16 Years of Work Experience as a Medical Practitioner

About Me



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