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High Blood Pressure HBP or BP Causes and Measurement


Causes and Measurements of High Blood pressure

Blood pressure (blood pressure, BP) refers to the side pressure that acts on the blood vessel wall of a unit area when blood flows in a blood vessel. It is the driving force that drives blood flow in a blood vessel. It is called arterial blood pressure, capillary pressure and venous blood pressure in different blood vessels. Blood pressure is usually referred to as the arterial blood pressure of the systemic circulation.


Abnormality name: Blood pressure, BP

Influence factor:    Stroke volume, peripheral resistance, heart rate, etc.

Hypertension: Systolic blood pressure ≥140mmHg Diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg

Hypotension:    Blood pressure lower than 90 / 60mmHg


Table of Content

  1.      Causes (Influencing factors)
  2.      Measurement
  3.      Evaluation
  4.      Clinical Significance
  5.      Blood Pressure Standard



What are the Causes of High Blood Pressure?

There are five main factors affecting arterial blood pressure:

i.                  Stroke volume
ii.               Peripheral resistance
iii.            Heart rate
iv.             Eelasticity of aortic and aortic tube walls
v.                Circulating blood volume and vascular volume

Measurement of HBP

The measurement methods of blood pressure include direct measurement method and indirect measurement method: 
i. Direct measurement method is to send a long catheter with anticoagulant into the aorta by percutaneous puncture, the catheter is connected to a pressure sensor, and directly displays blood pressure. This law is an invasive method and is only applicable to certain special circumstances.

ii. The indirect measurement method is the cuff compression method, which is measured with a sphygmomanometer. 

Sphygmomanometers include mercury, spring and electronic sphygmomanometers. 

The indirect measurement method is simple and easy to use, and it is a widely used method in clinical practice.

1. What is Blood Pressure Measurement Method (cuff compression method)?


  1. The brachial artery is at the same level as the heart. The axillary midline is leveled in the supine position, and the fourth rib is leveled in the sitting position.
  2. Roll up your sleeves to expose your arms, straighten your elbows, and palm up.
  3. Turn on the sphygmomanometer, stabilize it vertically, and turn on the mercury tank switch.
  4.  Remove the air in the cuff, wrap the cuff around the middle of the upper arm, and the lower edge is 2 to 3 cm away from the elbow fossa.
  5.  Touch the brachial artery pulsation, place the stethoscope head on the obvious position of the pulsation, fix it by hand, gently pressurize, close the valve, and inflate until the brachial artery pulsation disappears and then increase by 20-30mmHg.
  6.  Slowly deflate, the speed should be 4mmHg / sec for mercury column drop, pay attention to the changes of mercury column scale and brachial artery sound.
  7.  The scale indicated by the mercury column when the first pulsating sound of the stethoscope is the systolic pressure, and the scale indicated by the mercury column when the pulsating sound suddenly weakens or disappears is the diastolic pressure.
  8.  After the measurement, exhaust the cuff, tighten the screw cap on the valve, loosen the cuff, put it in the box after finishing, and turn off the mercury tank switch.
  9.  Record the measured value, the record adopts the fractional formula, namely systolic pressure / diastolic pressure.


2. What are the Precautions for accuracy in measurement of High Blood Pressure?


  1.  The sphygmomanometer should be regularly tested and proofread to maintain accuracy.
  2.  For those who need to observe blood pressure closely, it should be "four fixed", namely fixed time, fixed location, fixed position, fixed blood pressure meter.
  3.  Within 30 minutes before the measurement, there are no factors that affect blood pressure such as vigorous exercise, smoking, and mood changes. The mood is stable, and the cuff should not be too tight.
  4.  Select the appropriate cuff according to the requirements.
  5.  Inflation should not be too fast or too fast to prevent mercury overflow; deflation should not be too fast or too slow, so as not to cause reading error.
  6. If blood pressure is inaudible or abnormal, it should be retested. During re-measurement, wait until the mercury column drops to the "0" point before measuring.
  7. Measurement of hemiplegic patients on the healthy arm.


What is the Assessment Method of Blood Pressure?

1. Normal blood pressure

Normal adult blood pressure range is relatively stable, the normal range of systolic pressure 90 - 139mmHg, diastolic pressure 60 - 89mmHg, pulse pressure 30 - 40mmHg.

2. Abnormal blood pressure

i. Hypertension: Without the use of antihypertensive drugs, systolic blood pressure ≥140mmHg and / or diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg for adults over 18 years of age.
ii. Hypotension: The blood pressure is lower than 90 / 60mmHg.

What is the Clinical significance of Blood Pressure Measurement?

1. Blood pressure can determine heart function and peripheral vascular resistance.
2. Blood pressure is also an important part of diagnosing diseases, observing changes in the condition and judging the effect of treatment.

What is the Normal Blood Pressure Value?

The normal value of blood pressure at all ages is convenient for modern people to understand their blood pressure in time, to detect hypertension in time, and to treat in time. Hypertension disease has become one of the diseases that harm modern people.

Normal blood pressure is a prerequisite for blood circulation. Blood pressure remains normal under the regulation of various factors, thereby providing sufficient blood volume for various tissues and organs to maintain normal metabolism. 

Too low or too high blood pressure (hypotension, high blood pressure) can cause serious consequences. The disappearance of blood pressure is a precursor to death, which shows that blood pressure has extremely important biological significance.




What are the Blood Pressure Standard Measurements?

The following is the reference value of the average normal blood pressure of  patients:



If the blood pressure is found to be higher than normal, a process of repeated measurement and monitoring is required. 

If it is determined that there is hypertension, then a full physical examination is required to determine the cause and treatment.

In 1984, medical scientists first proposed the concept of "high normal blood pressure". 

In 1993, they further set the blood pressure below 17.3-11.3Kpa (130-85mmHg) as normal blood pressure. 
139mmHg), the diastolic blood pressure is 11.3 - 11.9Kpa (85 - 89mmHg), or as long as the two reach this level, it is "high normal blood pressure", which is the "normal high blood pressure. 

According to the 1999 World Health Organization treatment guidelines, the diagnostic criteria for hypertension are systolic blood pressure ≥18.7Kpa (140mmHg), diastolic blood pressure ≥12.0Kpa (90mmHg).

This is the blood pressure "normal high" has not reached the diagnostic criteria for hypertension. It is not high Blood pressure, so if there is no target organ damage and no risk factors exist, no medical treatment is needed.

But the fact is not so simple. First of all, the "normal high value" of blood pressure has important clinical significance. The "normal high value" is more likely to develop hypertension than those with normal blood pressure. 

Secondly, it is in the "normal blood pressure group or ideal blood pressure group. For this group of people, it should be treated with non-pharmacological therapy, including overcoming bad lifestyle habits, such as alcoholism, smoking, eating greasy foods or salty foods, etc., regular visits to the hospital and so on.

The community health center measures the blood pressure and makes a record, and regularly contacts the doctor to seek the necessary guidance and help in a timely manner. Do not think that it does not matter or follow its natural development. 

Finally, if the person is at a "normally high value" Diabetes or complicated heart, brain, and kidney damage should be treated with antihypertensive drugs to reduce blood pressure to normal or ideal levels.

Long-acting antihypertensive drugs are the best choice for drugs to maintain a stable 24-hour blood pressure drop. Also, reduce target organ damage Possibility, reduce complications and reduce risk.





Author's Bio


Name: Gwynneth May

Educational Qualification: MBBS, M.D. (Medicine) Gold Medalist

Profession: Doctor

Experience: 16 Years of Work Experience as a Medical Practitioner

About Me



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